Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye), known officially as the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti ), is a Eurasian country that stretches across the Anatolian peninsula in Western Asia and Thrace in the Balkan region of southeastern Europe. Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Bulgaria to the northwest; Greece to the west; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan (the exclave of Nakhchivan) and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the southeast. The Mediterranean Sea and Cyprus are to the south; the Aegean Sea to the west; and the Black Sea is to the north.
Its political system was established in 1923 under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the first President, following the fall of the Ottoman Empire, which ruled the country for 623 years. Turkish is the sole official language throughout Turkey.
Turkey began full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005, having been an associate member of the European Economic Community since 1963 and having reached a customs union agreement in 1995.
Turkey has also fostered close cultural, political, economic and industrial relations with the Eastern world, particularly with the Middle East and the Turkic states of Central Asia, through membership in organizations such as the Organization of the Islamic Conference and Economic Cooperation Organization. Turkey is classified as a developed country by the CIA and as a regional power by political scientists and economists worldwide.
Most of the citizens of Turkey are Muslims, There are less than 100,000 minorities which follow other religions, mainly Christians, mostly Armenian Apostolic, Assyrian Church of the East and Greek Orthodox (64,000 people) and Jews, mainly Sephardic.
Mt. Ararat (Ağrı Dağı), which is also known in the legend of Noah’s Arch, is the highest peak in Turkey at 5,165 m (16,946 ft). The rivers of Dicle and Fırat are those that have given life to the lands of Mesopotamia. The point, at which these rivers originated, is Turkey.
Turkey is situated on the Himalayas which is one of the most important regions where there is an earthquake fault. There are three varying climates which has an effect in the growth of the economy.
Turkey today is the 17th most developed country economically. By 2023, which is the celebration of the 100th year of the Republic, its aim is to be in the first 10 developing nations around the world. Turkey is first in the world in the production of nuts figs, apricots and cherries. Turkey has the highest reserves of boron and chromium.
The population of Turkey is 72, 561, 312 according to the results of the General Population Count made in December 2009. Some of the biggest cities are Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, Bursa, Adana and Mersin.
The main forms of transportation are the usage of the motorway, railway and airway. In the major cities there are also subways.
Education is improving every day. The percentage of literacy in Turkey is 90 %. Eight years of education in Turkey is compulsory. It is followed by a four year secondary programme. Students have to take the University Entrance Examination to study at universities.
Being a Muslim country, Islamic holidays are celebrated in Turkey. Ramadan Holiday is a three-day holiday- and Kurban Bayramı lasts for four days. People visit their relatives during these holidays.
Two of the seven wonders of the world, the Temple of Artemis and the Mouselum of Halicarnassus, are located in Turkey.
The Turkish cuisine is influenced greatly by the Mesopotomian and Balkan cuisines, and is very rich. Istanbul is also famous for its Ottoman foods. There are various types of soups, dishes made with olive oil, meat, fish and desserts in traditional Ottoman Cuisine.
A traditional Turkish breakfast consists of cheese, jam, olives, eggs, tomatoes and pastry filled with cheese.
For lunch and dinner; soup, salads, rice, pasta, meat and vegetables are eaten. Dishes made with olive oil are common foods in the Mediterranean region. Fruit and desserts are also eaten at night.
Good morning! – Günaydın!
How are you? – Nasılsın?
I’m fine. – İyiyim.
Yes. – Evet.
Thank you! – Teşekkür ederim!
Please – Lütfen
Good evening! – İyi akşamlar!
Hello! – Merhaba!